Tan­zania Part 5. Agenda, Safaris and Poaching

Tan­zania is a popular tou­rist desti­na­tion for safaris. Wild­life such as ele­phants, lions and zebras can be observed or shot in the wild. In order to pro­tect the national parks sus­tainably in the sense of the 2030 Agenda, high ent­rance fees are charged for access. This is also intended to finance and moti­vate the ran­gers [1] who are sup­posed to pro­tect the wild­life from poa­ching.

A number of hun­ting ope­ra­tors adver­tise Tan­zania as a hun­ting country where “erst­klas­sige Tro­phäen[2] first-class tro­phies«) can be cap­tured. Hun­ting takes place mainly in areas where photo-tou­rism is not pos­sible[3].

One pro­vider describes the rea­sons for a cor­re­spon­ding boo­king via his site as follows:

»Michel steht nicht nur seit Jahr­zehnten für erst­klas­sige Safaris, per­fekte Orga­ni­sa­tion und starke Tro­phäen, son­dern auch für Fair Chase und ein hohes Enga­ge­ment für den Natur­schutz und die Jagd als solche in Tan­sania.“[4]

Here is the translation:

»Michel has not only stood for first-class safaris, per­fect orga­ni­sa­tion and strong tro­phies for decades, but also for Fair Chase and a high com­mit­ment to con­ser­va­tion and hun­ting as such in Tanzania.«

In his 235-page article on »Jagd­gegner-Behaup­tungen« (»hun­ting oppon­ents‹ claims«), blogger and hunter[5]  Volker Wollny states the fol­lowing on this subject:

»Gleich im benach­barten Tan­sania gibt es die meisten Löwen in ganz Afrika. Und – oh Schreck – sie werden bejagt und zwar – igitt – von Jagd­rei­senden, die schweres Geld dafür bezahlen. Das Geld, wel­ches dadurch herein kommt, geht größ­ten­teils in den Natur­schutz. Löwen haben hier einen öko­no­mi­schen Wert, anders als in Kenia, wo sie von den Vieh­züch­tern mehr oder weniger als Unge­ziefer ange­sehen und sogar im Nai­robi-Natio­nal­park ver­giftet werden. Da die Löwen hier jedoch keinen legalen öko­no­mi­schen Wert haben, gibt es kei­nerlei Schutz­maß­nahmen außer for­malen Gebarme über den Schwund von Seiten der Regie­rung. Woher auch sollte das Geld für einen effek­tiven Schutz kommen, wenn nicht von den Jägern, die für Löwen hohen Abschuss­ge­bühren zu ent­richten bereit sind?“[6]

Here is the translation:

“»Right in neigh­bou­ring Tan­zania there are the most lions in all of Africa. And — oh horror — they are hunted and that — yuck — by hun­ting tou­rists who pay heavy money for it. Most of the money that comes in goes to con­ser­va­tion. Lions have an eco­nomic value here, unlike in Kenya, where they are more or less con­si­dered vermin by the cattle far­mers and are even poi­soned in the Nai­robi National Park. However, since the lions have no legal eco­nomic value here, there are no pro­tec­tion mea­sures other than formal barbs about the deple­tion from the government. Where would the money for effec­tive pro­tec­tion come from if not from the hun­ters who are wil­ling to pay high shoo­ting fees for lions?«

Maximum 21 days per species

Hun­ting tou­rism in Tan­zania is sub­ject to regu­la­tions. Offi­cially, only old ani­mals may be hunted. When hun­ting, tou­rists must be accom­pa­nied by a pro­fes­sional wild­life ranger assisted by pro­fes­sional hunters.

“Tou­rists wis­hing to con­duct hun­ting tou­rism in Tan­zania has to apply through hun­ting com­pa­nies for license to acquire trophy.  The tou­rists are then allowed to bring in three rifles of dif­fe­rent cali­bres and 200 ammu­ni­tions of each calibre which they use and the­re­after return with them (ammu­ni­tion) to their homes of origin if not used. As for the rifles, they return home with them.  The permit for hun­ting a cer­tain spe­cies of wild­life is for 21 day after which it expires. The tou­rists are assisted by pro­fes­sional hun­ters who direct them which animal to shoot down as they are not allowed to shoot any animal as some might be pregnant.”[7]

There is a widespread claim that after trophy hun­ting, hun­ters simply leave the car­casses of the killed ani­mals lying around. In fact, this is not allowed and is more in line with the prac­tice of poachers.

Canned Hun­ting of bree­ding animals

According to a hunter, it is common for hun­ting tou­rists to be guided in such a way that they get the impres­sion that they are really tracking down the ani­mals in the wild and then hun­ting them down. In rea­lity, however, the hun­ting often takes place inside huge fences (canned hun­ting), which Euro­peans and Ame­ri­cans usually do not notice. An article from 2015 describes this as follows:

“Die Mehr­heit der Tiere wird dort gezielt dafür gezüchtet und dem zah­lenden Kunden (Preise: von 10.000 US-Dollar auf­wärts) in ein­ge­zäunten Gehegen über­lassen – Stich­wort Gat­ter­jagd. Die Zahl der wild lebenden getö­teten Löwen liegt bei über 500 pro Jahr in Afrika.“[8]

Here is the translation:

“The majo­rity of the ani­mals are bred there spe­ci­fi­cally for this pur­pose and left to the paying cus­tomer (prices: from 10,000 US dol­lars upwards) in fenced enclo­sures — key­word: canned hun­ting. The number of lions killed in the wild is over 500 per year in Africa.”

Anyone who believes that the type of lion hun­ting described here pro­tects the wild animal popu­la­tion and that it is an »honest« trial of strength bet­ween pre­d­ator and hunter is wrong:

“Löwen werden in großem Stil auf Farmen, vor allem in Süd­afrika, gezüchtet, mit der Hand auf­ge­zogen und in Gehegen ein­ge­sperrt. Als Jung­tiere müssen sie als Strei­chel­at­trak­tion her­halten. Haben sie erst eine statt­liche Größe erreicht, werden sie zum Abschuss an Jagd­tou­risten aus rei­chen Län­dern frei­ge­geben. Diese können oft schlecht schießen. So sterben die zahmen Löwen, die nie gesunde Scheu vor Men­schen ent­wi­ckelt haben, langsam und qual­voll und enden als Tro­phäe. Dem Argu­ment der Jagd­lobby, die Löwen­zucht diene der Art­erhal­tung frei­le­bender Löwen, wider­spre­chen Arten­schützer vehe­ment. Das Gegen­teil sei der Fall, da die Zahl der Canned-Hun­ting-Farmen stets zunimmt und für die wach­sende Nach­frage immer wieder frei­le­bende Löwen ein­ge­fangen werden, um wei­teren Nach­schub für die Gat­ter­jagd sicher­zu­stellen.“[9]

Here is the translation:

»Lions are bred on a large scale on farms, espe­cially in South Africa, raised by hand and locked up in enclo­sures. As cubs, they have to serve as a pet­ting attrac­tion. Once they have reached a respec­table size, they are released for shoo­ting to hun­ting tou­rists from rich coun­tries. These tou­rists are often bad shots. Thus the tame lions, which have never deve­loped a healthy shy­ness towards humans, die slowly and pain­fully and end up as tro­phies. Cam­pai­gner for the pro­tec­tion of end­an­gered spe­cies vehe­mently con­tra­dict the hun­ting lobby’s argu­ment that lion bree­ding serves to pre­serve the spe­cies of lions living in the wild. The oppo­site is the case, they say, as the number of canned hun­ting farms is con­stantly incre­a­sing and free-ran­ging lions are cap­tured again and again to meet the gro­wing demand and to ensure fur­ther sup­plies for gate hunting.«

Not all legally shot ani­mals can be exported

The extent to which hun­ting trips in Tan­zania always take place in the spirit of nature con­ser­va­tion should at least be ques­tioned. For example, the tour ope­rator »Profi-Jagd­reisen« writes the fol­lowing on its website:

»In Tan­sania können Wild­arten legal erlegt werden, die dem Anhang I des Washing­toner Arten­schutz­ab­kom­mens unter­liegen und somit nicht nach Deutsch­land ein­ge­führt werden dürfen.“[10]

Here is the translation:

»In Tan­zania, game spe­cies can be legally shot that are sub­ject to Appendix I of the Washington Con­ven­tion and thus may not be imported into Germany.«

CITES almost valid everywhere

The Con­ven­tion on Inter­na­tional Trade in End­an­gered Spe­cies of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was estab­lished in 1973. It was last updated on 22.06.2021[11].

In 2021, it (the agree­ment) was valid in a total of 184 coun­tries. In Ger­many, the Con­ven­tion has been in force since 1976, in Tan­zania it first came into force on 27 February 1980[12]. The list of animal and plant spe­cies defined as par­ti­cu­larly end­an­gered is usually updated every two to three years by the member states[13].

CITES pur­sues Agenda goals

CITES is linked to the Sus­tainable Deve­lo­p­ment Goals of Agenda 21[14], [15], which has since been super­seded by Agenda 2030[16].Tan­zania has also com­mitted itself to sup­por­ting the goals of the 2030 Agenda[17]. These goals include poverty alle­via­tion, pro­tec­tion of life under water and on land, sus­tainable cities, but also gender equa­lity and qua­lity edu­ca­tion[18]. Among the core goals that Tan­zania is pur­suing in terms of the Agenda is also »family plan­ning«, which can be unders­tood as a euphe­mism for »popu­la­tion reduc­tion«:

»Directly, con­tracep­tion reduces the risk of maternal and new­born mor­ta­lity by decre­a­sing expo­sure to pregnancy and high-risk births. Incre­ased con­tracep­tive use also reduces total fer­ti­lity at the country-level, which favor­ably shapes popu­la­tion dyna­mics. These popu­la­tion dyna­mics faci­li­tate eco­nomic growth and pro­spe­rity, human capital deve­lo­p­ment, food secu­rity and agri­cul­ture pro­duc­tion, the avai­la­bi­lity and improved qua­lity of social ser­vices, and much more.“[19]

Cor­rupted by wild­life trade?

Regar­ding »Goal 15″, life on land, among other things, the fol­lowing is stated:

»While 15 per­cent of land is pro­tected, bio­di­ver­sity is still at risk. Nearly 7,000 spe­cies of ani­mals and plants have been ille­gally traded. Wild­life traf­fi­cking not only erodes bio­di­ver­sity, but creates inse­cu­rity, fuels con­flict, and feeds corruption.

Urgent action must be taken to reduce the loss of natural habi­tats and bio­di­ver­sity which are part of our common heri­tage and sup­port global food and water secu­rity, cli­mate change miti­ga­tion and adap­t­ation, and peace and secu­rity.“[20]

An assess­ment by Eileen DeRolf on Agenda 21 fits this:

»Umwelt­schützer, die sich für gefähr­dete Arten ein­setzen, nutzen Boden­treu­hand­stif­tungen, um Vor­schriften für den Schutz von Wild­tieren und die Aus­wei­tung von Lebens­räumen zu ver­walten und durch­zu­setzen.“[21]

Here is the translation:

»Envi­ron­men­ta­lists working for end­an­gered spe­cies use land trusts to manage and enforce regu­la­tions for wild­life pro­tec­tion and habitat expansion.«

The less obvious goals actually pur­sued by Agenda 21 / Agenda 2030 were pre­sented in more detail in ano­ther article.

Tanzania’s Sus­tainable Agenda 2030 and poaching

Hun­ting in Tan­zania does not always take place in a legal way. Many people in Tan­zania are very poor. Poa­ching can the­re­fore be a wel­come extra income:

»The results of the pre­sent study con­firm the link bet­ween poverty and poa­ching, but they also reveal that many vil­la­gers har­vest bush­meat to sup­ple­ment their income and are not among the poo­rest of the poor, as is often assumed. More import­antly, the study reveals that how poa­chers view their finan­cial status rela­tive to other vil­la­gers is a pri­mary influ­ence on poa­ching habits.“[22]

The decisive factor was the­re­fore not only abso­lute poverty, but also com­pa­ra­tive poverty to the neighbours.

Poa­chers inter­viewed for the study admitted to hun­ting impala, giraffe and warthog, among others. As hun­ting wea­pons they would mainly use guns, wire snares and poison arrows[23]. In an ear­lier report it was men­tioned that lions were often poi­soned and caught with long-line snares[24].

Poa­ching is a sad reality

That poa­ching is a fun­da­mental pro­blem in Tan­zania is appro­pria­tely hinted at by a tour operator:

»Viele Jäger und Foto­tou­risten zieht es Jahr für Jahr in den Selous Natio­nal­park, Afrika´s größtes Wild­re­servat, benannt nach Fre­derik Courtney Selous. Leider, leider hat dort die Wil­derei über­hand­ge­nommen und es ist nur eine Frage der Zeit, wenn dort, ähn­lich wie in Kenia, die Wild­be­stände nach­haltig geschä­digt werden. Die staat­liche Kon­trolle ver­sagt groß­flä­chig. Das Gros der Jagd­rei­se­ver­an­stalter tum­melt sich im Selous, doch durch das Verbot der Ein­fuhr von Elfen­bein und Löwen­tro­phäen in die USA wird es für viele Out­fitter schwierig, den Safa­ri­be­trieb auf­recht­zu­er­halten.“[25]

Here is the translation:

»Many hun­ters and photo tou­rists are drawn year after year to the Selous National Park, Africa’s lar­gest wild­life reserve, named after Fre­derik Courtney Selous. Unfor­tu­n­a­tely, poa­ching has become ram­pant there and it is only a matter of time when, similar to Kenya, the game popu­la­tions there will be per­ma­nently damaged. State con­trol is fai­ling on a large scale. The bulk of hun­ting tour ope­ra­tors ply their trade in the Selous, but the ban on impor­ting ivory and lion tro­phies into the US makes it dif­fi­cult for many out­fit­ters to main­tain safari operations.«

The jour­na­list Fatima Majed points out in an article that Tan­zania is said to have had the hig­hest ele­phant kil­ling rate from 1998 to 2014. The cor­re­spon­ding popu­la­tion had declined by over 60 %[26].

Already in 2017, it was warned that ele­phants could be extinct in Tan­zania by 2022[27].

In the mean­time, the government has adopted a strict »zero poa­ching« policy. Majed reports that in just five years, more than 2,300 poa­chers and traf­fi­ckers have been arrested, inclu­ding 21 so-called »king­pins«[28] who could be described as the heads of orga­nised poaching.

Poa­ching con­ti­nues des­pite zero poa­ching policy

Among the suc­cesses of the anti-poa­ching cam­paign, the fol­lowing is stated:

»Neben den 14.000 Stück beschlag­nahmten Elfen­beins, fand die Taskforce in fünf Jahren auch 25 Nas­horn-Hörner, 29 Nil­pferd-Zähne, 29 Groß­katzen-Felle, hun­derte von lebenden Tieren und tau­sende Tonnen Holz.“ [29]

Here is the translation:

»In addi­tion to the 14,000 pieces of ivory seized, the taskforce also found 25 rhino horns, 29 hippo teeth, 29 big cat skins, hund­reds of live ani­mals and thousands of tonnes of timber over five years.« 

In 2021, the World Wild­life Fund (WWF) reported nume­rous recent cases of poa­ching in Tan­zania. Among other things, tusks and the meat of eland were seized. Giraffes are par­ti­cu­larly affected by poa­ching[30].

Long prison sen­tences a rea­lity for caught poachers

Anyone caught poa­ching in Tan­zania faces harsh pen­al­ties. For example, Tanzania’s most noto­rious poa­cher, Boni­face Mat­thew Mali­ango alias »She­tani« (Kis­wa­hili: devil), was sen­tenced to 12 years in prison in 2017. He was accused of kil­ling several thousand ele­phants[31].

In 2019, the Chi­nese poa­cher Yang Fen­glan was sen­tenced to 15 years in prison. Within 14 years, he had smug­gled a total of 860 tusks out of the country. Yang was pro­bably also con­nected to She­tani[32].

In 2020, the three poa­chers Kulwa Subila, alias Nge­leja, Charles Makunga, alias Jumanne and Jumanne Kwan­gu­lija, alias Shija Masanja were each sen­tenced to 40 years in prison. Since they were sen­tenced to 20 years each for par­allel offences, their respec­tive impr­i­son­ment thus ends after the first twenty years[33].

Reduc­tion by 90%. All poa­chers guilty?

The first major suc­cesses in the fight against poa­ching were recorded in Tan­zania in 2015 and 2016, when a total of 1,563 poa­chers were appre­hended[34]. Bet­ween 2016 and 2021, a total of 33,386 poa­chers were arrested. At the same time, the number of poa­chers was reduced by 90 % in these five years[35]. According to the local news­paper »Mwa­n­anchi« of 07.06.2022 (p. 20), only 105 poa­ching inci­dents were pro­se­cuted from 2017 to 2022. Around 90 % of these related to the illegal hun­ting of ele­phants.  Of the afo­re­men­tioned inci­dents, 52% of the poa­chers had been found guilty, 22% were awai­ting trial and 26% had been caught in the act.

Spe­cific infor­ma­tion on recent inci­dents can be found in detail at https://​wil​deye​-east​-africa​.oxpe​ckers​.org.

It is unclear how often inno­cent people are fal­sely accused of poa­ching. However, indi­vi­dual reports, for example from 2013, show that false sus­pi­cions do occur and that human rights are not necessa­rily respected by the ran­gers[36].

Covid-19 as a turbo for poachers

How sus­tainable the fight against poa­ching will be remains to be seen. However, con­crete suc­cesses are already visible. For example, the number of ele­phants had risen from 43,330 in 2014 to around 60,000 in 2019[37].

An article from August 2021, for example, speaks of an Africa-wide increase in poa­ching during the »Covid 19 pan­demic«:

»The Inter­na­tional Journal of Pro­tected Areas and Con­ser­va­tion found that 78.5% of sur­veyed African coun­tries reported that COVID-19 had impacted their abi­lity to monitor the illegal wild­life trade, and 53 per­cent reported a high level of impact from COVID-19 on the abi­lity to miti­gate human-wild­life con­flict.“[38]

Even though Tan­zania was hardly affected by pan­demic mea­sures under the former pre­si­dent, Dr John Pombe Mag­u­fuli, the crisis nevertheless led to a signi­fi­cant decline in the number of tou­rists in the country.

Con­tro­ver­sial cen­sor­ship bill withdrawn

A report from 2015 cri­ti­cised a draft law by the then Tan­za­nian government under Dr Magufuli:

„Neue Gesetze würden es Umwelt­schüt­zern erschweren, kri­ti­sche Infor­ma­tionen zu ver­öf­fent­li­chen. Es soll zukünftig illegal sein, Daten zu ver­breiten, die den Zahlen des Amts für Sta­tistik wider­spre­chen. Außerdem sollen im Internet keine Infor­ma­tionen ver­breitet werden dürfen, die von der Regie­rung als „trü­ge­risch, irre­füh­rend oder feh­ler­haft“ ein­ge­stuft werden. Sogar der Emp­fang sol­cher Daten soll zukünftig kri­mi­nell sein.

Weil Umwelt­schützer soziale Medien stark nutzen, um Aktionen gegen Wil­derei und Elfen­bein-Handel zu orga­ni­sieren, könnte die Regie­rung die Arbeit von Akti­visten unter­binden und sogar Gefäng­nis­strafen ver­hängen.“[39]

Here is the translation:

»New laws would make it more dif­fi­cult for envi­ron­men­ta­lists to publish cri­tical infor­ma­tion. In future, it shall be illegal to dis­se­mi­nate data that con­tra­dict the figures of the Office of Sta­tis­tics. In addi­tion, it will not be allowed to dis­se­mi­nate infor­ma­tion on the internet that is clas­si­fied by the government as »decep­tive, mis­lea­ding or erro­neous«. Even the receipt of such data is to be cri­mi­na­lised in future.

Because envi­ron­men­ta­lists make heavy use of social media to orga­nise actions against poa­ching and the ivory trade, the government could stop the work of acti­vists and even impose prison sentences.«

Due to public pres­sure, the Chama Cha Mapin­duzi Party (CCM), which is still in power today, pushed for the with­drawal of the hea­vily cri­ti­cised law[40].  According to the 2015 annual report of »Twaweza ni sisi«, the con­tro­ver­sial »Access to Infor­ma­tion and Media Ser­vices Bills« was finally with­drawn[41].

Hun­ting trips as an eco­nomic factor

Those who embark on a hun­ting trip to Tan­zania have to take into account not only the costs for the flight, travel health insurance, a high-capa­city hun­ting lia­bi­lity insurance with world­wide vali­dity, shoo­ting fees for the desired trophy, but also various addi­tional costs. These include the costs for a hun­ting licence, a game pro­tec­tion levy, costs for a pre-pre­pa­ra­tion of the cap­tured tro­phies, the trophy export tax, the fees for a wea­pons import permit, con­ces­sion fees as well as a hun­ting block fee.

https://​www​.wfs​-rating​.de/​j​a​g​d​h​a​f​t​p​f​l​i​c​h​t​v​e​r​s​i​c​h​e​r​ung

Claims prac­tice Hun­ting accidents

The German INTER Ver­si­che­rungs­gruppe (INTER Insurance Group) reports on a claim in Namibia:

»Unser Kunde war auf einer Jagd­reise in Namibia und gemeinsam mit einem in Namibia lebenden deut­schen Jagd­führer mit gela­denem Gewehr auf der Pirsch. Durch ein Ver­sehen unseres Kunden löste sich ein Schuss, wel­cher den Jagd­führer von hinten durch die Brust traf und schwer ver­letzte. Zwar konnten wir dem Jagd­führer keine direkte Hilfe zur Gene­sung zukommen lassen, leis­teten aber 40.000 EUR für Behand­lungs­kosten, Schmer­zens­geld und Verdienstausfall.

Die Kom­mu­ni­ka­tion mit dem Geschä­digten war durch die große Ent­fer­nung erschwert. Die Klä­rung der Ansprüche nach nami­bi­schen Recht war her­aus­for­dernd. Den­noch konnte der Schaden zügig zur Zufrie­den­heit aller Betei­ligten regu­liert werden.“

Here is the translation:

»Our client was on a hun­ting trip in Namibia and was stal­king with a loaded rifle tog­e­ther with a German hun­ting guide living in Namibia. Due to an acci­dent on the part of our client, a shot was fired which hit the hun­ting guide from behind through the chest and seriously injured him. Alt­hough we were unable to pro­vide the hun­ting guide with direct help to recover, we paid EUR 40,000 for tre­at­ment costs, com­pen­sa­tion for pain and suf­fe­ring and loss of earnings.

Com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the injured party was dif­fi­cult due to the long distance. Cla­ri­fying claims under Nami­bian law was chal­len­ging. Nevertheless, the damage was settled swiftly to the satis­fac­tion of all par­ties involved.«

For this reason, when choo­sing a sui­table hun­ting lia­bi­lity insurance policy, prio­rity should be given to high-per­for­mance con­di­tions and not to a pos­sible saving of a few euros per year.

Shoo­ting fees up to 30,000 USD

According to one hun­ting ope­rator, the cost of shoo­ting a python is 350 USD, a zebra 1,600 USD, a cro­co­dile 3,200 USD, a buf­falo 3,500 USD, a leo­pard 7,900 USD, a lion 12,000 USD or an ele­phant bet­ween 18,000 and 30,000 USD. The above-men­tioned costs are then added to these shoo­ting costs, so that 21 hun­ting days for an ele­phant cost an addi­tional USD 57,200, and 12 hun­ting days for a leo­pard still cost USD 30,050[42].

Since it is appar­ently not only the hun­ting industry that earns well from such hunts for animal tro­phies, it is easy, for example, to look at the expul­sion of the Maasai from their ances­tral home­land in the Ngorongoro National Park[43] from a dif­fe­rent angle. Is this pos­sibly about the imple­men­ta­tion of the 2030 Agenda?

Live bul­lets fired at peace-loving Maasai

A few days ago, on 08.06.2022, a Maasai vil­lage in Loliondo, which belongs to the Ngorongoro District, was the scene of an outrage. A whole fleet of police and mili­tary vehi­cles had come to evict the vil­la­gers from their legal ances­tral ter­ri­tory[44], [45]. The inten­tion is to create a game reserve for the royal family of the United Arab Emi­rates (UAE) [46].

At first, tear gas was used[47], then live ammu­ni­tion was fired[48], [49].

The shots were aimed at the feet, the back or once even the head. At least ten people were wounded, inclu­ding a 70-year-old man[50]. Many Maasai were arrested as a result of the events[51].

„Tan­za­nian police and game war­dens arrived in the area on Tuesday to demar­cate a 1,500 square kilo­me­tres of “vil­lage land” as a game reserve for trophy hun­ting, he said.

The move would ban all human sett­le­ments and gra­zing in the area, effec­tively evic­ting semi-pas­to­ra­list Maasai com­mu­nities.“[52]

In one of the con­tri­bu­tions to the inci­dent, it is pointed out that the only per­ma­nent source of water would be in this very area.  In order to sur­vive periods of drought, this is essen­tial for sur­vival in order to be able to con­tinue this nomadic type of cattle far­ming at all. Against this back­ground, mas­sive resis­tance from the Maasai against such mea­sures[53]  is not surprising.

Spe­cies pro­tec­tion: kil­ling of rare animals?

Other back­ground infor­ma­tion on the events reported by the Oak­land Insti­tute, a think tank based in the USA, is also problematic:

„According to Oak­land, the UAE-based Otterlo Busi­ness Com­pany — which runs hun­ting excur­sions for the country’s royal family and their guests — will repor­tedly con­trol com­mer­cial hun­ting in the area des­pite the company’s past invol­ve­ment in several vio­lent evic­tions of the Maasai, bur­ning of homes and the kil­ling of thousands of rare ani­mals in the area.“[54]

One reporter men­tions that some of the Maasai living here today were evicted from the Seren­geti National Park as early as 1959. He also adds that an East African Court of Jus­tice (EACJ) order of 2018 is being knowingly vio­lated under the pre­text of envi­ron­mental pro­tec­tion[55].

The royal tour of a president

Such events are cer­tainly not con­du­cive to tou­rism. Under­stand­ably, Tanzania’s new pre­si­dent, Samia Suluhu Hassan, is cour­ting tou­rists to visit the country. To this end, »The Royal Tour« was con­ducted through many cities in Tan­zania from the end of 2021 until February 2022. These cities included Dar es Salaam[56], Zan­zibar, but also Kili­man­jaro[57]  near the city of Arusha, a cen­tral star­ting point for many safaris in the country[58]. On 28 April 2022, the film of the Ame­rican jour­na­list Peter Green­berg[59], [60].  about his trip with the Tan­za­nian Pre­si­dent was published. Already in December, a very impres­sive trailer was shown, which impres­si­vely pre­sented the beau­ties of the country for tou­rism[61].

The pre­vious parts of the series at a glance:

Part 1: A »bull­dozer« with few sym­pa­thies in the West

https://​cri​tical​-news​.com/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​_​1​_​e​n​g​l​i​sh/ bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/850

Topics include PCR tests, freedom of the press

Part 2: Did Mag­u­fuli want to leave WHO?

https://​cri​tical​-news​.com/​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​-​2​_​e​n​g​l​i​sh/ bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/860

Topics include Gates-Foun­da­tion, oppo­si­tion to the WHO

Part 3: Mama Samia and the World Eco­nomic Forum

https://​cri​tical​-news​.com/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​_3/ bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/864

Topics include World Eco­nomic Forum, Agenda 21 / Agenda 2030, sustainability

Part 4: The vac­ci­na­tion cam­paign in Tan­zania under Magufuli’s heirs

https://​cri​tical​-news​.com/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​_4/  bzw. https://t.me/critical_news_de/868

Topics include vac­cine safety, medical edu­ca­tion, case sur­veil­lance, adverse side effects


[1] Cf. Ludwig Siege »Aus der Natur­schutz­praxis, Finan­zie­rung von Natur­schutz durch

nach­hal­tige Jagd: Bei­spiel Selous Wild­re­servat, Tan­sania“, p. 2–3 on »con​ser​va​tion​-deve​lo​p​ment​.net“. Avail­able at https://​con​ser​va​tion​-deve​lo​p​ment​.net/​P​r​o​j​e​k​t​e​/​N​a​c​h​h​a​l​t​i​g​k​e​i​t​/​C​D​1​/​B​e​n​i​n​/​L​i​t​e​r​a​t​u​r​/​P​D​F​/​9​_​S​i​e​g​e​_​2​0​0​4​.​pdf, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[2] See e. g. »Masai­land“ at »diana​-jagd​reisen​.de“. Avail­able on https://​www​.diana​-jagd​reisen​.de/​a​f​r​i​k​a​/​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​/​m​a​s​a​i​l​and, last accessed at 05.06.2022.

[3] Ludwig Siege »Aus der Natur­schutz­praxis, Finan­zie­rung von Natur­schutz durch

nach­hal­tige Jagd: Bei­spiel Selous Wild­re­servat, Tan­sania“, p. 3 on »con​ser​va​tion​-deve​lo​p​ment​.net“. Avail­able at https://​con​ser​va​tion​-deve​lo​p​ment​.net/​P​r​o​j​e​k​t​e​/​N​a​c​h​h​a​l​t​i​g​k​e​i​t​/​C​D​1​/​B​e​n​i​n​/​L​i​t​e​r​a​t​u​r​/​P​D​F​/​9​_​S​i​e​g​e​_​2​0​0​4​.​pdf, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[4] »Jagd in Tan­sania“ on »globus​-jagd​reisen​.de“. Avail­able at https://​www​.globus​-jagd​reisen​.de/​a​f​r​i​k​a​/​t​a​n​s​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[5] »Fokkos Selbst­ver­sorger-Blog“ on »selbst​ver​sorger​-blog​.de“ Avail­able at http://​selbst​ver​sorger​-blog​.over​-blog​.de/​p​a​g​e​s​/​W​e​r​_​i​c​h​_​b​i​n​-​9​3​0​1​8​8​.​h​tml, las accessed on 06.06.2022.

[6] Volker Wollny »Jagd­gegner-Behaup­tungen – eine Rich­tig­stel­lung“, p. 138 at »ljw​-nrw​.de“. Avail­able at https://​www​.ljv​-nrw​.de/​m​e​d​i​a​/​1​2​9​1​6​3​8​4​7​6​_​b​u​c​h​w​o​l​l​n​y​.​pdf, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[7] »Tan­zania Wild­life Manage­ment Aut­ho­rity. Mam­laka ya usi­ma­mizi wa wan­ya­mapori“ on »tawa​.go​.tz“. Avail­able at https://​www​.tawa​.go​.tz/​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​/​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​u​t​i​l​i​z​a​t​i​on/, last accessed on 10.06.2022.

[8] Julia Raabe »Vom Spaß, exo­ti­sche Tiere zu schießen“ on »diepresse​.com“ from 08.08.2015 at 6:09 p. m.. Avail­able at https://​www​.diepresse​.com/​4​7​9​5​8​5​7​/​v​o​m​-​s​p​a​s​s​-​e​x​o​t​i​s​c​h​e​-​t​i​e​r​e​-​z​u​-​s​c​h​i​e​s​sen, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[9] »Der Unter­gang des Königs: Afrikas Löwen in Not“ on „frei​heit​-fuer​-tiere​.de“ from 2011. Avail­able at https://​www​.frei​heit​-fuer​-tiere​.de/​p​r​i​n​t​a​b​l​e​/​a​r​t​i​k​e​l​/​d​e​r​-​u​n​t​e​r​g​a​n​g​-​d​e​s​-​k​o​e​n​i​g​s​-​a​f​r​i​k​a​s​-​l​o​e​w​e​n​-​i​n​-​n​o​t​.​h​tml, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[10] »Tan­sania. Wild­reichtum im Herzen des Schwarzen Kon­ti­nents!“, p. 9 on »pro​fi​jagd​reisen​.de“. Avail­able at http://​pro​fi​jagd​reisen​.de/​w​p​-​c​o​n​t​e​n​t​/​u​p​l​o​a​d​s​/​2​0​1​5​/​0​5​/​T​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​.​pdf, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[11] »Appen­dices“ on »cites​.org“ from 22.06.2021. Avail­able at https://​cites​.org/​e​n​g​/​a​p​p​/​a​p​p​e​n​d​i​c​e​s​.​php, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[12] »List of Con­trac­ting Par­ties“ on »cites​.org“. Avail­able at https://​cites​.org/​e​n​g​/​d​i​s​c​/​p​a​r​t​i​e​s​/​c​h​r​o​n​o​l​o​.​php, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[13] »Das Washing­toner Arten­schutz­über­ein­kommen“ on »deine​-tier​welt​.de“ from 24.06.2015. Avail­able at https://​www​.deine​-tier​welt​.de/​m​a​g​a​z​i​n​/​d​a​s​-​w​a​s​h​i​n​g​t​o​n​e​r​-​a​r​t​e​n​s​c​h​u​t​z​u​e​b​e​r​e​i​n​k​o​m​m​en/, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[14] »Coö­pe­ra­tion and syn­ergy with the Con­ven­tion on Bio­lo­gical Diver­sity“ on »cites​.org“. Avail­able at https://cites.org/eng/res/10/10–04R14.php, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[15] »Imple­men­ta­tion of China’s Agenda 21 and Rele­vant Inter­na­tional Con­ven­tions“ on »cciced​.net“ from 19.09.1995. Avail­able at http://​www​.cciced​.net/​c​c​i​c​e​d​P​h​o​n​e​E​N​/​E​v​e​n​t​s​/​A​G​M​e​e​t​i​n​g​/​1​9​9​5​/​m​e​e​t​i​n​g​p​l​a​c​e​_​4​0​1​6​/​2​0​1​6​0​9​/​t​2​0​1​6​0​9​2​2​_​8​9​3​4​7​.​h​tml, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[16] Eileen DeRolf and Jan van Hel­sing »Wir töten die halbe Mensch­heit  — und es wird schnell gehen! Der Plan der Élite, »min­der­wer­tige Völker« über Krank­heiten und Seu­chen los­zu­werden. Der Rest erlebt die grün-sozia­lis­ti­sche Neue Welt­ord­nung!“ Fich­tenau (ama­deus), 6th edi­tion, 2022, p. 59: »2015: Am 27. Sep­tember ver­ab­schiedet Prä­si­dent Obama die Agenda 2030 für Nach­hal­tige Ent­wick­lung, die von nun an die Agenda 21 für die nächsten 15 Jahre ablösen wird und den wei­teren Weg bei der Umset­zung ihrer Ziele dik­tiert.“ Here is the trans­la­tion: “2015: On 27 Sep­tember, Pre­si­dent Obama adopts the 2030 Agenda for Sus­tainable Deve­lo­p­ment, which will from now on replace Agenda 21 for the next 15 years and dic­tate the way for­ward in imple­men­ting its goals.”

[17] »United Repu­blic of Tan­zania“ on »sus​tainab​le​de​ve​lo​p​ment​.un​.org“. Avail­able at https://​sus​tainab​le​de​ve​lo​p​ment​.un​.org/​m​e​m​b​e​r​s​t​a​t​e​s​/​t​a​n​z​a​nia, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[18]«„Sus­tainable deve­lo­p­ment goals“ on »tz​.undp​.org“. Avail­able at https://​www​.tz​.undp​.org/​c​o​n​t​e​n​t​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​/​e​n​/​h​o​m​e​/​s​u​s​t​a​i​n​a​b​l​e​-​d​e​v​e​l​o​p​m​e​n​t​-​g​o​a​l​s​.​h​tml, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[19] Kaja Jurc­zynska and Stella Mujaya »Sus­tainable Deve­lo­p­ment Goals in Tan­zania: Invest in Family Plan­ning” on »health​po​li​cyplus​.com” from January 2020. Avail­able at http://www.healthpolicyplus.com/ns/pubs/17386–17702_TanzaniaSDGBrief.pdf, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[20] »Goal 15: Life on land“ on »tz​.undp​.org“. Avail­able at https://​www​.tz​.undp​.org/​c​o​n​t​e​n​t​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​/​e​n​/​h​o​m​e​/​s​u​s​t​a​i​n​a​b​l​e​-​d​e​v​e​l​o​p​m​e​n​t​-​g​o​a​l​s​/​g​o​a​l​-​1​5​-​l​i​f​e​-​o​n​-​l​a​n​d​.​h​tml, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[21] Eileen DeRolf und Jan van Hel­sing »Wir töten die halbe Mensch­heit  — und es wird schnell gehen! Der Plan der Élite, »min­der­wer­tige Völker« über Krank­heiten und Seu­chen los­zu­werden. Der Rest erlebt die grün-sozia­lis­ti­sche Neue Welt­ord­nung!“ Fich­tenau (ama­deus), 6th edi­tion, 2022, p. 89

[22] Neha Jain »Pro­bing rural poa­chers in Africa: Why do they poach?” on “mon​gabay​.com” from 22.03.2017. Avail­able at https://​news​.mon​gabay​.com/​2​0​1​7​/​0​3​/​p​r​o​b​i​n​g​-​r​u​r​a​l​-​p​o​a​c​h​e​r​s​-​i​n​-​a​f​r​i​c​a​-​w​h​y​-​d​o​-​t​h​e​y​-​p​o​a​ch/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[23] Neha Jain »Pro­bing rural poa­chers in Africa: Why do they poach?” on »mon​gabay​.com” from 22.03.2017. Avail­able at https://​news​.mon​gabay​.com/​2​0​1​7​/​0​3​/​p​r​o​b​i​n​g​-​r​u​r​a​l​-​p​o​a​c​h​e​r​s​-​i​n​-​a​f​r​i​c​a​-​w​h​y​-​d​o​-​t​h​e​y​-​p​o​a​ch/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[24] United Nations Envi­ron­ment Pro­gramme. World Con­ser­va­tion Moni­to­ring Centre »United Repu­blic of Tan­zania: A review of trade in CITES-listed spe­cies”, p. 13 on »ec​.europa​.eu” from November 2007. Avail­able at https://​ec​.europa​.eu/​e​n​v​i​r​o​n​m​e​n​t​/​c​i​t​e​s​/​p​d​f​/​r​e​p​o​r​t​s​/​r​e​v​i​e​w​_​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​.​pdf, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[25] »Tan­sania Robin Hurt“ on »pre​mium​-jagd​reisen​.de“. Avail­able at https://​www​.pre​mium​-jagd​reisen​.de/​p​r​o​d​u​c​t​_​i​n​f​o​.​p​h​p​?​p​r​o​d​u​c​t​s​_​i​d​=​144, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[26] »Eine Taskforce für die Ele­fanten. Rück­gang der Wil­derei in Tan­sania“ on »good​news​-magazin​.de“. Avail­able at https://​good​news​-magazin​.de/​r​u​e​c​k​g​a​n​g​-​d​e​r​-​w​i​l​d​e​r​e​i​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​s​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[27] »Tan­zania: More Than 33,380 Poa­chers Arrested in Past 5 Years” on »allaf​rica​.com” from 09.06.2021. Avail­able at https://​allaf​rica​.com/​s​t​o​r​i​e​s​/​2​0​2​1​0​6​0​9​0​7​7​1​.​h​tml, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[28] »Eine Taskforce für die Ele­fanten. Rück­gang der Wil­derei in Tan­sania“ on »good​news​-magazin​.de“. Avail­able at https://​good​news​-magazin​.de/​r​u​e​c​k​g​a​n​g​-​d​e​r​-​w​i​l​d​e​r​e​i​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​s​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[29] »Eine Taskforce für die Ele­fanten. Rück­gang der Wil­derei in Tan­sania“ on »good​news​-magazin​.de“. Avail­able at https://​good​news​-magazin​.de/​r​u​e​c​k​g​a​n​g​-​d​e​r​-​w​i​l​d​e​r​e​i​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​s​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[30] Noah Sitati »Incre­a­sing cases of poa­ching and IWT in Tan­zania Remains a major threat to wild­life” on»wwf.or.tz” from 14.03.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.wwf​.or​.tz/​?​3​8​7​0​3​/​I​n​c​r​e​a​s​i​n​g​-​c​a​s​e​s​-​o​f​-​p​o​a​c​h​i​n​g​-​a​n​d​-​I​W​T​-​i​n​-​T​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​R​e​m​a​i​n​s​-​a​-​m​a​j​o​r​-​t​h​r​e​a​t​-​t​o​-​w​i​l​d​l​ife, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[31] »Tan­zania jails noto­rious ele­phant poa­cher“ on »bbc​.com“ from 03.03.2017. Avail­able at https://​www​.bbc​.com/​n​e​w​s​/​w​o​r​l​d​-​a​f​r​i​c​a​-​3​9​1​5​7​783, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[32] »Tanzania’s Court Sen­tences Chi­nese National Charged with „Ivory Traf­fi­cking to 15 Years in Prison” on »panda​.org” from 20.02.2019. Avail­able at https://​wwf​.panda​.org/​w​w​f​_​n​e​w​s​/​?​3​4​3​4​3​0​/​T​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​s​-​C​o​u​r​t​-​S​e​n​t​e​n​c​e​s​-​C​h​i​n​e​s​e​-​N​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​-​C​h​a​r​g​e​d​-​w​i​t​h​-​I​v​o​r​y​-​T​r​a​f​f​i​c​k​i​n​g​-​t​o​-​1​5​-​Y​e​a​r​s​-​i​n​-​P​r​i​son, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[33] »Three poa­chers slapped with 40 yr-jail term each (Tan­zania)” on »afri​ca​n​ele​phant​journal​.com” from 08.04.2020. Avail­able at https://​afri​ca​n​ele​phant​journal​.com/​t​h​r​e​e​-​p​o​a​c​h​e​r​s​-​s​l​a​p​p​e​d​-​w​i​t​h​-​4​0​-​y​r​-​j​a​i​l​-​t​e​r​m​-​e​a​c​h​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[34] See e. g. »Tan­zania Wild­life Manage­ment Aut­ho­rity. Mam­laka ya usi­ma­mizi wa wan­ya­mapori“ on »tawa​.go​.tz“. Avail­able at https://​www​.tawa​.go​.tz/​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​/​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​p​r​o​t​e​c​t​i​on/, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[35] »Tan­zania: More Than 33,380 Poa­chers Arrested in Past 5 Years” on »allaf​rica​.com” from 09.06.2021. Avail­able at https://​allaf​rica​.com/​s​t​o​r​i​e​s​/​2​0​2​1​0​6​0​9​0​7​7​1​.​h​tml, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[36] See e. g. Courtney Brooks und Mar­celle Hop­kins »How Pro­tec­ting Ani­mals Led to Alle­ga­tions of Tor­ture and Rape” on »natio​nal​geo​gra​phic​.com” from 19.09.2016. Avail­able at https://​www​.natio​nal​geo​gra​phic​.com/​a​n​i​m​a​l​s​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​p​o​a​c​h​i​n​g​-​h​u​m​a​n​-​r​i​g​h​t​s​-​a​b​u​ses, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[37] Fum­buka Ng’wanakilala »Tan­zania says ele­phant, rhino popu­la­tions reboun­ding after anti-poa­ching crack­down“ on »reu​ters​.com“ from 10.07.2019 at 3:37 p.m.. Avail­able at https://​www​.reu​ters​.com/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​u​s​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​w​i​l​d​l​i​f​e​-​i​d​I​N​K​C​N​1​U​5​1NU, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[38] Apo­li­nari Tairo »African ran­gers fight poa­ching under plight of COVID-19 pan­demic” on »etur​bonews​.com” from 14.08.2021. Avail­able at https://​etur​bonews​.com/​a​f​r​i​c​a​n​-​r​a​n​g​e​r​s​-​f​i​g​h​t​-​p​o​a​c​h​i​n​g​-​u​n​d​e​r​-​p​l​i​g​h​t​-​o​f​-​c​o​v​i​d​-​1​9​-​p​a​n​d​e​m​ic/, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[39] »Been­dete Peti­tion. Staats­ge­heimnis Wil­derei – Tan­sania zen­siert Umwelt­schützer“ on »regen​wald​.org“. Avail­able at https://​www​.regen​wald​.org/​p​e​t​i​t​i​o​n​e​n​/​9​9​7​/​s​t​a​a​t​s​g​e​h​e​i​m​n​i​s​-​w​i​l​d​e​r​e​i​-​t​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​-​z​e​n​s​i​e​r​t​-​u​m​w​e​l​t​s​c​h​u​e​t​z​e​r​#​m​ore, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[40] Pius Rugo­n­zibwa »Tan­zania: CCM Calls for With­drawal of Dra­co­nian Media“ on »allaf​rica​.com“ from 25.06.2015. Avail­able at https://​allaf​rica​.com/​s​t​o​r​i​e​s​/​2​0​1​5​0​6​2​5​0​2​8​5​.​h​tml, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[41] »Annual Report 2015“ on »twaweza​.aymzz​.com“, p. 21. Avail­able at https://​twaweza​.aymzz​.com/​r​e​s​o​u​r​c​e​s​/​T​w​a​w​e​z​a​-​A​n​n​u​a​l​-​R​e​p​o​r​t​-​2​0​1​5​-​F​I​N​A​L​.​pdf, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[42] »Tan­sania. Wild­reichtum im Herzen des Schwarzen Kon­ti­nents!“ on »pro​fi​jagd​reisen​.de“. Avail­able at http://​pro​fi​jagd​reisen​.de/​w​p​-​c​o​n​t​e​n​t​/​u​p​l​o​a​d​s​/​2​0​1​5​/​0​5​/​T​a​n​s​a​n​i​a​.​pdf, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

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[44] Chris Lang »Evic­ting the Maasai for “con­ser­va­tion” and trophy hun­ting in Loliondo, Tan­zania. Dozens of Maasai have been injured by gun shots” on »redd​-monitor​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​redd​-monitor​.org/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​e​v​i​c​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​f​o​r​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​a​n​d​-​t​r​o​p​h​y​-​h​u​n​t​i​n​g​-​i​n​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​d​o​z​e​n​s​-​o​f​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​h​a​v​e​-​b​e​e​n​-​i​n​j​u​r​e​d​-​b​y​-​g​u​n​-​s​h​o​ts/, last accessed on 10.06.2022.

[45] Rajat Ghai »Fort­ress Con­ser­va­tion: Ten­sion in Tanzania’s Loliondo as troops move in to evict Maasai to make way for game reserve” on »down​toearth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.down​toearth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[46] Rajat Ghai »Fort­ress Con­ser­va­tion: Ten­sion in Tanzania’s Loliondo as troops move in to evict Maasai to make way for game reserve” auf »down​toearth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.down​toearth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[47] Chloé Farand »Tan­za­nian aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maasai people in game reserve dis­pute“ on »cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last accessed on 12.06.2022

[48] Chris Lang »Evic­ting the Maasai for “con­ser­va­tion” and trophy hun­ting in Loliondo, Tan­zania. Dozens of Maasai have been injured by gun shots” on »redd​-monitor​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​redd​-monitor​.org/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​e​v​i​c​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​f​o​r​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​a​n​d​-​t​r​o​p​h​y​-​h​u​n​t​i​n​g​-​i​n​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​d​o​z​e​n​s​-​o​f​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​h​a​v​e​-​b​e​e​n​-​i​n​j​u​r​e​d​-​b​y​-​g​u​n​-​s​h​o​ts/, last accessed on 10.06.2022.

[49] Chloé Farand »Tan­za­nian aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maasai people in game reserve dis­pute“ on »cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p.m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last accessed on 12.06.2022

[50] Chloé Farand »Tan­za­nian aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maasai people in game reserve dis­pute“ on »cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last accessed on 12.06.2022

[51] Chris Lang »Evic­ting the Maasai for “con­ser­va­tion” and trophy hun­ting in Loliondo, Tan­zania. Dozens of Maasai have been injured by gun shots” on »redd​-monitor​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​redd​-monitor​.org/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​e​v​i​c​t​i​n​g​-​t​h​e​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​f​o​r​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​a​n​d​-​t​r​o​p​h​y​-​h​u​n​t​i​n​g​-​i​n​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​d​o​z​e​n​s​-​o​f​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​h​a​v​e​-​b​e​e​n​-​i​n​j​u​r​e​d​-​b​y​-​g​u​n​-​s​h​o​ts/, last accessed on 10.06.2022.

[52] Chloé Farand »Tan­za­nian aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maasai people in game reserve dis­pute“ on »cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last accessed on 12.06.2022

[53] Chloé Farand »Tan­za­nian aut­ho­ri­ties seen ope­ning fire on Maasai people in game reserve dis­pute“ on »cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com“ from 10.06.2022 at 5:29 p. m..Available at https://​www​.cli​ma​tech​an​ge​news​.com/​2​0​2​2​/​0​6​/​1​0​/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​a​u​t​h​o​r​i​t​i​e​s​-​s​e​e​n​-​o​p​e​n​i​n​g​-​f​i​r​e​-​o​n​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​i​n​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​d​i​s​p​u​t​e​/​?​f​b​c​l​i​d​=​I​w​A​R​3​8​0​J​z​N​S​y​N​t​L​p​Y​4​v​K​y​I​L​K​t​1​O​M​U​J​U​V​t​9​5​t​c​B​z​W​k​G​3​m​L​Z​4​7​H​A​G​e​s​E​m​z​W​Y​0os, last accessed on 12.06.2022

[54] Rajat Ghai »Fort­ress Con­ser­va­tion: Ten­sion in Tanzania’s Loliondo as troops move in to evict Maasai to make way for game reserve” on »down​toearth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.down​toearth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[55] Rajat Ghai »Fort­ress Con­ser­va­tion: Ten­sion in Tanzania’s Loliondo as troops move in to evict Maasai to make way for game reserve” on »down​toearth​.org” from 10.06.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.down​toearth​.org​.in/​n​e​w​s​/​a​f​r​i​c​a​/​f​o​r​t​r​e​s​s​-​c​o​n​s​e​r​v​a​t​i​o​n​-​t​e​n​s​i​o​n​-​i​n​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​s​-​l​o​l​i​o​n​d​o​-​a​s​-​t​r​o​o​p​s​-​m​o​v​e​-​i​n​-​t​o​-​e​v​i​c​t​-​m​a​a​s​a​i​-​t​o​-​m​a​k​e​-​w​a​y​-​f​o​r​-​g​a​m​e​-​r​e​s​e​r​v​e​-​8​3​248, last accessed on 12.06.2022.

[56] Alex Nelson Malanga »Samia’s call as ‘Royal Tour’ is unveiled in Dar es Salaam” on »the​ci​ti​zenco​.tz” from 09.05.2022. Avail­able at https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/tanzania/news/national/samia-s-call-as-royal-tour-is-unveiled-in-dar-es-salaam–3809384, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[57] Emily Burack »PBS’s The Royal Tour Returns with First Epi­sode Filmed Since COVID-19 Pan­demic Began” on »tow​n​andcoun​trymag​.com” from 20.05.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.tow​n​andcoun​trymag​.com/​l​e​i​s​u​r​e​/​a​r​t​s​-​a​n​d​-​c​u​l​t​u​r​e​/​a​4​0​0​6​1​5​6​6​/​p​b​s​-​t​h​e​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[58] Cf.. Zephania Ubwani »What The Royal Tour means to Tan­zania” on »the​ci​tizen​.co​.tz” from 28.04.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.the​ci​tizen​.co​.tz/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​/​n​e​w​s​/​n​a​t​i​o​n​a​l​/​w​h​a​t​-​t​h​e​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​m​e​a​n​s​-​t​o​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​-​3​7​9​7​120, last accessed on 05.06.2022.

[59] Emily Burack »PBS’s The Royal Tour Returns with First Epi­sode Filmed Since COVID-19 Pan­demic Began” on »tow​n​andcoun​trymag​.com” from 20.05.2022. Avail­able at https://​www​.tow​n​andcoun​trymag​.com/​l​e​i​s​u​r​e​/​a​r​t​s​-​a​n​d​-​c​u​l​t​u​r​e​/​a​4​0​0​6​1​5​6​6​/​p​b​s​-​t​h​e​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​t​a​n​z​a​n​ia/, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[60] »Tan­za­nian Pre­si­dent to launch the much awaited Royal Tour film in Arusha and Zan­zibar” on »tran​qui​liki​li​man​jaro​.com” from 27.04.202. Avail­able at https://​www​.tran​quilki​li​man​jaro​.com/​t​a​n​z​a​n​i​a​n​-​p​r​e​s​i​d​e​n​t​-​t​o​-​l​a​u​n​c​h​-​t​h​e​-​m​u​c​h​-​a​w​a​i​t​e​d​-​r​o​y​a​l​-​t​o​u​r​-​f​i​l​m​-​i​n​-​a​r​u​s​h​a​-​a​n​d​-​z​a​n​z​i​b​ar/, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

[61] »Tan­zania The Royal Tour Trailer” on »you​tube​.com” from 24.12.2021. Avail­able at https://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​v​=​f​S​b​c​L​V​D​4​JLg, last accessed on 06.06.2022.

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